Retinoids in cancer chemoprevention (Okuno)

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Published on Friday, 09 February 2018

Abstract

We review the therapeutic and preventive applications of a retinoid analog (vitamin A and its derivatives) for human cancers.

Chemoprevention of cancer is an intervention in the carcinogenic process by chemical agents that block or reverse the malignant transformation of cells.

Retinoids are prime candidates for cancer chemoprevention since cancer is characterized by abnormal growth with a lack of differentiation, which could be modified by retinoids. Retinoids exert their biological functions through nuclear receptors, retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR).

A number of experimental and clinical studies have been performed in the past two decades with retinoids showing that they inhibit or reverse the carcinogenic process in some organs, including hematological malignancy as well as premalignant and malignant lesions in the oral cavity, head and neck, breast, skin and liver.

We particularly focus upon the therapeutic application of all-trans RA (atRA) to acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and on the preventive approach to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by a synthetic retinoid analog, acyclic retinoid. In both malignancies, malfunction of retinoid nuclear receptors is closely related to their carcinogenic process.

In APL, a chromosomal translocation produces a chimeric protein between RAR alpha and a protein called promyelocyte leukemia protein (PML). PML-RAR alpha works as a dominant negative receptor in the leukemic cells, interfering with the normal function of RAR alpha and/or PML, which in turn results in the arrest of cell maturation at the stage of promyelocytes.

Oral administration of atRA induces differentiation of promyelocytic leukemic cells to mature neutrophils, and leads to a high rates (over 90%) of complete remission. AtRA therapy has become standard in the treatment of APL.

In the case of HCC, post-translational modification of RXR by phosphorylation impairs its function, which leads to uncontrolled cell growth. Acyclic retinoid suppresses the phosphorylation of RXR alpha, restores its function in the presence of its endogenous ligand, 9-cis RA, and thereby induces apoptosis of the cancer cells. Acyclic retinoid given orally successfully suppresses the development of second primary tumors in cirrhotic patients who undergo curative removal of preceding HCC. Eradication of (pre)malignant clones ('clonal deletion') from the liver is suggested as a mechanism of the chemopreventive effect.

Further development of more effective retinoids as well as their use in combination with other classes of anticancer agents including immunopreventive drugs like interferons may provide strategies for cancer prevention.

 

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See also:

- All-Trans-Retinoic Acid (ATRA - analogues and/or derivatives);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - All-Trans Retinoic Acid);

- Solution of retinoids in vitamin E in the Di Bella Method biological multitherapy;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients with low performance status;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in chemotherapy-pretreated patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma and low performance status;

- Observations on the Report of a case of pulmonary adenocarcinoma with lymph node, hepatic and osseus metastasis;

- Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Long-Lasting Remission with Combination of Cyclophosphamide, Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Retinoids, Melatonin, and ACTH;

- The Di Bella Method DBM improved survival objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 23 tumours of the head and neck;

- Complete objective response, stable for 5 years, with the Di Bella Method, of multiple-metastatic carcinoma of the breast;

- Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the first-line treatment with somatostatin combined with melatonin, retinoids, vitamin D3, and low doses of cyclophosphamide in 20 cases of breast cancer: a preliminary report;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 122 cases of breast cancer;

- Complete objective response to biological therapy of plurifocal breast carcinoma.