Retinoid therapy of childhood cancer

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Published on Thursday, 05 April 2018

Abstract

In vitro studies that showed RA could cause growth arrest and differentiation of myelogenous leukemia and neuroblastoma led to clinical trials of retinoids in APL and neuroblastoma that increased survival for both of those diseases

In the case of APL, ATRA has been the drug of choice, and preclinical and clinical data support direct combinations of ATRA with cytotoxic chemotherapy.

For neuroblastoma, a phase I study defined a dose of 13-cis-RA, which was tolerable in patients after myeloablative therapy, and a phase III trial that showed postconsolidation therapy with 13-cis-RA improved EFS for patients with high-risk neuroblastoma. Preclinical studies in neuroblastoma indicate that ATRA or 13-cis-RA can antagonize cytotoxic chemotherapy and radiation, so use of 13-cis-RA in neuroblastoma is limited to maintenance after completion of cytotoxic chemotherapy and radiation.

A limitation on the antitumor benefit of ATRA in APL is the marked decrease in drug levels that occurs during therapy as a result of induction of drug metabolism, resulting in a shorter drug half-life and decreased plasma levels. Although early studies sought to overcome the pharmacologic limitations of ATRA therapy in APL, the demonstration that ATO is active against APL in RA-refractory patients has led to a focus on studies employing ATO.

Use of 13-cis-RA in neuroblastoma has avoided the decreased plasma levels seen with ATRA. It is likely that recurrent disease seen during or after 13-cis-RA therapy in neuroblastoma is due to tumor cell resistance to retinoid-mediated differentiation induction.

Studies in neuroblastoma cell lines resistant to 13-cis-RA and ATRA have shown that they can be sensitive, and in some cases collaterally hypersensitive, to the cytotoxic retinoid fenretinide. Fenretinide induces tumor cell cytotoxicity rather than differentiation, acts independently from RA receptors, and in initial phase I trials has been well tolerated. Clinical trials of fenretinide, alone and in combination with ceramide modulators, are in development.

 

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See also:

- All-Trans-Retinoic Acid (ATRA - analogues and/or derivatives);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - All-Trans Retinoic Acid, Analogues and/or Derivatives);

- Solution of retinoids in vitamin E in the Di Bella Method biological multitherapy;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Alpha tocopheryl acetate/Vitamin E);

- Vitamin D (analogues and/or derivatives) and cancer;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Dihydrotachysterol, Alfacalcidol, synthetic Vitamin D3);

- Neuroblastoma: Complete objective response to biological treatment;

- Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Long-Lasting Remission with Combination of Cyclophosphamide, Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Retinoids, Melatonin, and ACTH;

- Congenital fibrosarcoma in complete remission with Somatostatin, Retinoids, Vitamin D3, Vitamin E, Vitamin C, Melatonin, Calcium, Chondroitin sulfate associated with low doses of Cyclophosphamide in a 14-year Follow Up;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) in the treatment of prostate cancer: a preliminary retrospective study of 16 patients and a review of the literature;

- Oesophageal squamocellular carcinoma: a complete and objective response;

- Cyclophosphamide plus Somatostatin, Bromocriptin, Retinoids, Melatonin and ACTH in the Treatment of Low-grade Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphomas at Advanced Stage: Results of a Phase II Trial;

- Relapse of High-Grade Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma After Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation: A Case Successfully Treated With Cyclophosphamide Plus Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Melatonin, Retinoids, and ACTH;

- Low-grade Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma at Advanced Stage: A Case Successfully Treated With Cyclophosphamide Plus Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Retinoids, and Melatonin;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 55 cases of Lymphomas;

- Large B-cells Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma, Stage IV-AE: a Case Report;

- Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma, Stage III-B-E: a Case Report;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients with low performance status;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in chemotherapy-pretreated patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma and low performance status;

- Observations on the Report of a case of pulmonary adenocarcinoma with lymph node, hepatic and osseus metastasis;

- Recurrent Glioblastoma Multiforme (grade IV – WHO 2007): a case of complete objective response achieved by means of the concomitant administration of Somatostatin and Octreotide – Retinoids – Vitamin E – Vitamin D3 – Vitamin C – Melatonin – D2 R agonists (Di Bella Method – DBM) associated with Temozolomide;

- The Di Bella Method DBM improved survival objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 23 tumours of the head and neck;

- Complete objective response, stable for 5 years, with the Di Bella Method, of multiple-metastatic carcinoma of the breast;

- Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the first-line treatment with somatostatin combined with melatonin, retinoids, vitamin D3, and low doses of cyclophosphamide in 20 cases of breast cancer: a preliminary report;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 122 cases of breast cancer;

- Complete objective response to biological therapy of plurifocal breast carcinoma.