Phase I trial of all-trans retinoic acid in patients with treated head and neck squamous carcinoma

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Published on Tuesday, 04 December 2018

Abstract

Although retinoids show promise for prevention of second primary upper aerodigestive tract tumors, the optimum retinoid, dose, and schedule are unknown.

All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has greater affinity for retinoic acid receptors and may be more active than other retinoids but has a shorter plasma half life and may up-regulate its own metabolism.

We defined the maximum long-term tolerable dose, dosing frequency, pharmacokinetics, and toxicity of ATRA in patients with treated squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN).

Twenty-one patients were randomized to 45, 90, or 150 mg/m2 ATRA either once daily, or as divided doses every 8 h, for 1 year.

Pharmacokinetics were assessed periodically. Fourteen men and seven women with previous SCCHN of initial stage I-IV were treated. Grade > or =3 toxicities (reversible) included headache and hypertriglyceridemia in 5 and 6 patients each, mucositis in 2 patients, and hyperbilirubinemia, elevated alkaline phosphatase, colitis, lipasemia, xerostomia, eczema, and arthritis in 1 patient each. The 150-mg/m2 dose was not tolerable.

Doses were reduced for grade > or =3 toxicity in seven of eight patients at 90 mg/m2 daily. Three of nine patients at 45 mg/m2/day required dose reduction, two at the once-daily dose. Day 1 ATRA area under the plasma concentration versus time curve (AUC) increased with dose, and after 1-2 months of continued dosing, the AUC declined in 7 of 13 patients (54%) studied. ATRA AUC did not correlate with toxicity severity or frequency.

Fifteen mg/m2/day every 8 h is a tolerable dose for 1 year in patients with treated SCCHN. ATRA pharmacokinetics did not correlate with toxicity.

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See also:

- Official Web Site: The Di Bella Method;

- All-Trans-Retinoic Acid (ATRA - analogues and/or derivatives) - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - All-Trans Retinoic Acid, Analogues and/or Derivatives - Approximately 60mg per day orally: 40mg per day Beta-Carotene/β-Carotene, 10mg per day ATRA and 10mg per day Axerophthol palmitate);

- Solution of retinoids in vitamin E in the Di Bella Method biological multitherapy;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Alpha tocopheryl acetate/Vitamin E, approximately 20 grams per day orally);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Calcium, 2 grams per day, orally);

- Beta-Carotene or β-carotene in Solution of retinoids in vitamin E in the Di Bella Method biological multitherapy;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Cyclophosphamide and/or Hydroxyurea tablets, one or two per day);

- The Di Bella Method DBM improved survival objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 23 tumours of the head and neck;

- Recurrent Glioblastoma Multiforme (grade IV – WHO 2007): a case of complete objective response achieved by means of the concomitant administration of Somatostatin and Octreotide – Retinoids – Vitamin E – Vitamin D3 – Vitamin C – Melatonin – D2 R agonists (Di Bella Method – DBM) associated with Temozolomide;

- Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Long-Lasting Remission with Combination of Cyclophosphamide, Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Retinoids, Melatonin, and ACTH;

- Neuroblastoma: Complete objective response to biological treatment;

- Oesophageal squamocellular carcinoma: a complete and objective response.