beta-Carotene and selenium supplementation enhances immune response in aged humans

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Published on Wednesday, 09 January 2019

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Nutritional research has focused on the effects of specific nutrients' ability to cause or prevent cancer. While beta-carotene and selenium (both important for antioxidant systems) have cancer prevention capabilities, their antineoplastic mechanism(s) remains to be elucidated.

METHODS: In a prospective, randomized study design we evaluated immunological changes in free-living, healthy aged humans (57-84 years of age) given a placebo, beta-carotene (45 mg/day), and/or selenium (400 µg/day) supplement for 6 months and after 2 months of discontinuation. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were evaluated and subtyped using flowcytometry. Natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity was determined by a fluorescent method. Plasma diene conjugates were assessed to evaluate changes in oxidative stress.

RESULTS: Selenium and selenium plus beta-carotene supplementation caused an increase in total T cells by 27% and 31%, respectively (p < .05). The only group that was different (in T lymphocytes) from the controls (placebo group) after 6 months of supplementation (p < .05) was the selenium-supplemented group (+65%). Much of this increase was the result of an increase in CD4(+) T-cell subsets. Selenium or beta-carotene supplementation for 3 months increased NK cell cytotoxicity over pretreatment levels by 58% and 34%, respectively; however, these levels returned to +12% and -6% of pretreatment levels after 6 months supplementation. Selenium plus beta-carotene supplementation caused an increase in the percentage of NK cell by 121% and 161% at 3 and 6 months, respectively. However, the increased numbers of NK cells were not correlated with NK cell activity.

CONCLUSIONS: We found that selenium enhanced immune function (NK cell cytotoxicity) and phenotypic expression of T-cell subsets, whereas beta-carotene affected only immune function. Increased NK cell cytotoxicity may last for only a short period of supplementation and was not sustained throughout the 6 months of supplementation. Supplemental selenium and beta-carotene seemed to affect immune function in aged subjects by different mechanisms.

 

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See also:

- Official Web Site: The Di Bella Method;

- Beta-Carotene or β-carotene in Solution of retinoids in vitamin E in the Di Bella Method biological multitherapy;

- The Di Bella Method (A Variable Part - Selenium methonine, 40 μg capsules, twice a day);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Calcium, 2 grams per day, orally);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Vitamin C/Ascorbic Acid, 2–4 grams, twice a day orally);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - All-Trans Retinoic Acid, Analogues and/or Derivatives - Approximately 60mg per day orally: 40mg per day Beta-Carotene/β-Carotene, 10mg per day ATRA and 10mg per day Axerophthol palmitate);

- All-Trans-Retinoic Acid (ATRA - analogues and/or derivatives) - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- Solution of retinoids in vitamin E in the Di Bella Method biological multitherapy;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Alpha tocopheryl acetate/Vitamin E, approximately 20 grams per day orally);

- Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Long-Lasting Remission with Combination of Cyclophosphamide, Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Retinoids, Melatonin, and ACTH;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients with low performance status;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in chemotherapy-pretreated patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma and low performance status;

- Observations on the Report of a case of pulmonary adenocarcinoma with lymph node, hepatic and osseus metastasis.