p44/42 MAP kinase-dependent regulation of catalase by autocrine human growth hormone protects human mammary carcinoma cells from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis

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Published on Thursday, 28 March 2019

Abstract

Previous microarray expression analyses have indicated autocrine human growth hormone (hGH) regulation of genes involved in the oxidative stress response.

Expression analysis of antioxidant enzymes revealed that autocrine hGH increased both the mRNA and protein levels of catalase, superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), glutathione peroxidase and glutamylcysteine synthetase but not that of SOD2.

As a consequence, autocrine hGH increased the antioxidant capacity of mammary carcinoma cells and protected against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis.

Catalase activity was increased by autocrine production of hGH in mammary carcinoma cells and a catalase inhibitor abrogated protection from oxidative stress afforded by autocrine hGH.

Autocrine hGH transcriptionally regulated catalase gene expression in a p44/42 MAP kinase-dependent manner and inhibition of MEK concordantly abrogated the protective effect of autocrine hGH against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis.

Given that increased cellular oxidative stress is a key effector mechanism of specific chemotherapeutic agents, we propose that antagonism of autocrine hGH will improve the efficacy of chemotherapeutic regimes utilized for human mammary carcinoma.

 

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- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Cyclophosphamide 50mg tablets and/or Hydroxyurea 500mg tablets, one or two per day);

- The Synergism of Somatostatin, Melatonin, Vitamins Prolactin and Estrogen Inhibitors Increased Survival, Objective Response and Performance Status In 297 Cases of Breast Cancer;

- Complete objective response, stable for 5 years, with the Di Bella Method, of multiple-metastatic carcinoma of the breast;

- Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the first-line treatment with somatostatin combined with melatonin, retinoids, vitamin D3, and low doses of cyclophosphamide in 20 cases of breast cancer: a preliminary report;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 122 cases of breast cancer;

- Complete objective response to biological therapy of plurifocal breast carcinoma.