Renaissance of the biologically active vitamin A derivatives: established and novel directed therapies for cancer and chemoprevention

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Published on Friday, 03 May 2019

Abstract

Vitamin A and its biologically active derivatives are involved in a complex arrangements of physiological and developmental responses in many tissue of higher vertebrates.

Retinoids are natural and synthetic compounds related to retinoic acid that act through interaction with two basic types of nuclear receptors: retinoic acid receptors (RAR alpha, RARbeta and RARgamma) and retinoid X receptors (RXRalpha, RXRbeta and RXRgamma) as retinoid-inducible transcription factors.

Thus, the retinoid receptors are considered to be ligand-activated, DNA-binding, trans-acting, transcription-modulating proteins involved in a general molecular mechanism responsible for transcriptional responses in target genes. They exert both beneficial and detrimental activity; they have tumor-suppressive activity but on the other hand they are teratogenic.

Retinoids inhibit carcinogenesis, suppress premalignant epithelial lesions and tumor growth and invasion in a variety of tissues. Natural and synthetic retinoids have therapeutical effects due to their antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing effects. They are known to cause redifferentiation or to prevent further dedifferentiation of various neoplastic tissues.

A number of novel chemical compounds, receptor selective retinoids and rexinoids, have been synthesized up to now and tested both in vitro and in vivo, using animal models against different cancer cells. In spite of that progress, there is still an urgent call for novel synthetic retinoids and rexinoids with greater retinoid receptor selectivity, reasonable chemotherapeutic or chemopreventive effects and reduced toxicity and side effects.

This article summarizes selected effects of biologically active natural or synthetic retinoids and rexinoids, acting through their cognate nuclear receptors, and their use in chemotherapy and chemoprevention of various types of cancer.

 

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See also:

- Official Web Site: The Di Bella Method;

- All-Trans-Retinoic Acid (ATRA - analogues and/or derivatives) - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - All-Trans Retinoic Acid, Analogues and/or Derivatives - Approximately 60mg per day orally: 40mg per day Beta-Carotene/β-Carotene, 10mg per day ATRA and 10mg per day Axerophthol palmitate);

- Solution of retinoids in vitamin E in the Di Bella Method biological multitherapy;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Alpha tocopheryl acetate/Vitamin E, approximately 20 grams per day orally);

- Vitamin D (analogues and/or derivatives) and cancer - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Dihydrotachysterol, Alfacalcidol, synthetic Vitamin D3);

- Beta-Carotene or β-carotene in Solution of retinoids in vitamin E in the Di Bella Method biological multitherapy;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Cyclophosphamide 50mg tablets and/or Hydroxyurea 500mg tablets, one or two per day);

- Recurrent Glioblastoma Multiforme (grade IV – WHO 2007): a case of complete objective response achieved by means of the concomitant administration of Somatostatin and Octreotide – Retinoids – Vitamin E – Vitamin D3 – Vitamin C – Melatonin – D2 R agonists (Di Bella Method – DBM) associated with Temozolomide;

- The Di Bella Method DBM improved survival objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 23 tumours of the head and neck;

- Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Long-Lasting Remission with Combination of Cyclophosphamide, Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Retinoids, Melatonin, and ACTH;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients with low performance status;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in chemotherapy-pretreated patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma and low performance status;

- Observations on the Report of a case of pulmonary adenocarcinoma with lymph node, hepatic and osseus metastasis;

- Neuroblastoma: Complete objective response to biological treatment;

- Oesophageal squamocellular carcinoma: a complete and objective response;

- Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: clinical records on 17 patients treated with Di Bella's Method;

- The Di Bella Method Increases by the 30% the survival rate for Pancreas tumors and for this reason should be proposed as first line therapy for this type of cancer;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) in the treatment of prostate cancer: a preliminary retrospective study of 16 patients and a review of the literature;

- The Synergism of Somatostatin, Melatonin, Vitamins Prolactin and Estrogen Inhibitors Increased Survival, Objective Response and Performance Status In 297 Cases of Breast Cancer;

- Complete objective response, stable for 5 years, with the Di Bella Method, of multiple-metastatic carcinoma of the breast;

- Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the first-line treatment with somatostatin combined with melatonin, retinoids, vitamin D3, and low doses of cyclophosphamide in 20 cases of breast cancer: a preliminary report;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 122 cases of breast cancer;

- Complete objective response to biological therapy of plurifocal breast carcinoma.