Transactivation of HER2 by vasoactive intestinal peptide in experimental prostate cancer: Antagonistic action of an analog of growth-hormone-releasing hormone

Published on Thursday, 04 July 2019


Receptors for vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and the human epidermal growth factor family of tyrosine kinase receptors (HER) are potent promoters of cell proliferation, survival, migration, adhesion and differentiation in prostate cancer cell lines.

In this study, we analyzed the cross-talk between both classes of receptors through the regulation of HER2 transactivation and expression by VIP.

Three growth-hormone-releasing hormone analogs endowed with antagonistic activity for VIP receptors (JV-1-51, -52, and -53) abrogated the autocrine/paracrine stimuli of VIP on androgen-independent PC3 cells in the absence or the presence of 10% fetal bovine serum.

Semiquantitative and real-time quantitative RT-PCR together with Western blotting showed increased expression levels of both mRNA and proteins for HER2 and HER3 in PC3 and androgen-dependent LNCaP prostate cancer cells as compared to non-neoplastic RWPE-1 cells. VIP (100 nM) stimulated the expression levels of both HER2 and HER3 in PC3 cells in a time-dependent manner. Whereas these effects were relatively slow, VIP rapidly (0.5 min) increased HER2 tyrosine phosphorylation.

This pattern of HER transactivation was blocked by H89, a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, as well as by the specific VIP antagonist JV-1-53, indicating the involvement of VIP receptors and PKA activity in phosphorylated HER2 formation.

These findings support the merit of further studies on the potential usefulness of VIP receptor antagonists and both HER2 antibodies and tyrosine kinase inhibitors for prostate cancer therapy.


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See also:

- Official Web Site: The Di Bella Method;

- Somatostatin in oncology, the overlooked evidences - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Somatostatin, Octreotide, Sandostatin LAR, analogues and/or derivatives);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Cyclophosphamide 50mg tablets and/or Hydroxyurea 500mg tablets, one or two per day);

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) in the treatment of prostate cancer: a preliminary retrospective study of 16 patients and a review of the literature;

- The Synergism of Somatostatin, Melatonin, Vitamins Prolactin and Estrogen Inhibitors Increased Survival, Objective Response and Performance Status In 297 Cases of Breast Cancer;

- Complete objective response, stable for 5 years, with the Di Bella Method, of multiple-metastatic carcinoma of the breast;

- Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the first-line treatment with somatostatin combined with melatonin, retinoids, vitamin D3, and low doses of cyclophosphamide in 20 cases of breast cancer: a preliminary report;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 122 cases of breast cancer;

- Complete objective response to biological therapy of plurifocal breast carcinoma;

- Recurrent Glioblastoma Multiforme (grade IV – WHO 2007): a case of complete objective response achieved by means of the concomitant administration of Somatostatin and Octreotide – Retinoids – Vitamin E – Vitamin D3 – Vitamin C – Melatonin – D2 R agonists (Di Bella Method – DBM) associated with Temozolomide;

- The Di Bella Method DBM improved survival objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 23 tumours of the head and neck;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients with low performance status;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in chemotherapy-pretreated patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma and low performance status;

- Observations on the Report of a case of pulmonary adenocarcinoma with lymph node, hepatic and osseus metastasis;

- Neuroblastoma: Complete objective response to biological treatment;

- Oesophageal squamocellular carcinoma: a complete and objective response;

- Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: clinical records on 17 patients treated with Di Bella's Method;

- The Di Bella Method Increases by the 30% the survival rate for Pancreas tumors and for this reason should be proposed as first line therapy for this type of cancer.