Retinoic acid upregulates cone arrestin expression in retinoblastoma cells through a Cis element in the distal promoter region

Published on Friday, 29 November 2019


PURPOSE: This study was initiated to investigate the molecular mechanisms of activation of expression of the human cone arrestin (hCAR) gene by retinoic acid (RA), in an in vitro model of retinoblastoma cells.

METHODS: Human retinoblastoma Weri-Rb-1 or Y79 cell lines were cultured in the absence or presence of RA analogues with transcription or translation inhibitors for various periods. The mRNAs encoding hCAR, retinoic acid receptor (RAR), and retinoid X receptor (RXR) subtypes were analyzed by Northern blot. Immunoblot analysis of hCAR protein was also performed. The hCAR promoter's activity and its responsiveness to RA treatment was evaluated by transient transfection of the hCAR promotor-luciferase reporter constructs, followed by promoter deletion analysis to map the specific regions responsible for the RA response.

RESULTS: In our in vitro model, both all-trans RA and 9-cis RA induced hCAR mRNA in a time- and dose-dependent manner. RA's effect was blocked by either RNA or protein synthesis inhibitors; however, hCAR mRNA's stability was not affected by RA, as determined by RNA decay experiments. Although all RAR and RXR subtypes were detected, only RXRgamma and RARalpha increased dramatically after treatment with RA. An RXR-specific agonist, but not an RAR-specific agonist, also increased hCAR mRNA and protein expression in both Weri-Rb-1 and Y79 cells. RA stimulated hCAR promoter-luciferase activity in transient transfection studies. Subsequently, a region between -852 and -702 of the hCAR promoter, with RA-responsive elements (RAREs), was discovered to be responsible for the RA response.

CONCLUSIONS: The hCAR gene is transcriptionally upregulated by RA acting through cis elements within -852 to -702 of the hCAR 5' flanking region. Based on the cumulative data, RXRgamma is most likely the RA receptor subtype involved in hCAR regulation by RA.


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See also:

- Official Web Site: The Di Bella Method;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - All-Trans Retinoic Acid, Analogues and/or Derivatives - Approximately 60mg per day orally: 40mg per day Beta-Carotene/β-Carotene, 10mg per day ATRA and 10mg per day Axerophthol palmitate);

- All-Trans-Retinoic Acid (ATRA - analogues and/or derivatives) - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- Solution of retinoids in vitamin E in the Di Bella Method biological multitherapy;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Alpha tocopheryl acetate/Vitamin E, approximately 20 grams per day orally);

- Cancer and Vitamin E (analogues and/or derivatives) and cancer - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Melatonin tablets. From 30-40mg/day up to 200mg/day orally in patients with advanced stage of cancer disease and/or patients without respond to traditional treatments);

- Melatonin with adenosine solubilized in water and stabilized with glycine for oncological treatment - technical preparation, effectivity and clinical findings;

- About Melatonin - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- Publication: Melatonin anticancer effects: Review (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication: Key aspects of melatonin physiology: 30 years of research (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Dihydrotachysterol, Alfacalcidol, synthetic Vitamin D3);

- Vitamin D (analogues and/or derivatives) and cancer - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- Beta-Carotene or β-carotene in Solution of retinoids in vitamin E in the Di Bella Method biological multitherapy;

- The Di Bella Method DBM improved survival objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 23 tumours of the head and neck;

- Neuroblastoma: Complete objective response to biological treatment;

- Oesophageal squamocellular carcinoma: a complete and objective response;

- Recurrent Glioblastoma Multiforme (grade IV – WHO 2007): a case of complete objective response achieved by means of the concomitant administration of Somatostatin and Octreotide – Retinoids – Vitamin E – Vitamin D3 – Vitamin C – Melatonin – D2 R agonists (Di Bella Method – DBM) associated with Temozolomide.