Regulation of growth hormone receptors in human prostate cancer cell lines

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Published on Thursday, 06 February 2020

Abstract

We previously demonstrated the gene expression of two growth hormone (GH) receptor (GHR) isoforms in prostate cancer (PCa) patient tissues and human PCa cell lines.

In that initial study, we characterized LNCaP cell GH binding characteristics to GHR and its activation of relevant signal transduction pathways.

We now show that GH binding to GHR and GHR mRNA expression in the cell lines studied are hormonally regulated. In the androgen-dependent LNCaP cells, the potent, specific and stable androgen analogue, mibolerone, caused a time- and biphasic dose-dependent, stimulation of (125)I-hGH specific binding to cells cultured in serum-free medium (SFM); however, when LNCaP cells were grown in chemically defined Gc full medium, long-term mibolerone-induced inhibition was observed. This effect of Gc on the androgen response was mimicked by the triiodothyronine (T(3)) contained in GC. In contrast, oestradiol (E(2)), cortisol, and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and -II all caused stimulation of GH binding.

Furthermore, we also observed homologous and heterologous, isoform- and cell-type-specific regulation of GHR mRNA expression in all three cell lines. In LNCaP cells, GH caused stimulation of both GHR mRNA and of its exon 9-truncated isoform, GHR(tr); however, mibolerone, E(2) and T(3) all stimulated GHR(tr) mRNA more potently than they did GHR. In androgen-independent PC3 cells, GH stimulated GHR(tr) expression, but almost not GHR, while in contrast, in androgen-independent DU145 cells, GH caused a clear reduction in GHR and less so in GHR(tr).

The differential regulation of GHR isoform gene expression in human PCa cell lines and of GHR functional capacity (GH binding), by hormones and growth factors relevant to disease progression, suggests that GHR may prove to be an additional therapeutic target to slow down/prevent progression of human prostate cancer.

 

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See also:

- Official Web Site: The Di Bella Method;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Somatostatin, Octreotide, Sandostatin LAR, analogues and/or derivatives);

- Somatostatin in oncology, the overlooked evidences - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- Publication, 2018 Jul: Over-Expression of GH/GHR in Breast Cancer and Oncosuppressor Role of Somatostatin as a Physiological Inhibitor (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2018 Sep: The over-expression of GH/GHR in tumour tissues with respect to healthy ones confirms its oncogenic role and the consequent oncosuppressor role of its physiological inhibitor, somatostatin: a review of the literature (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2019 Aug: The Entrapment of Somatostatin in a Lipid Formulation: Retarded Release and Free Radical Reactivity (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2019 Sep: Effects of Somatostatin and Vitamin C on the Fatty Acid Profile of Breast Cancer Cell Membranes (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Bromocriptine and/or Cabergoline);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Cyclophosphamide 50mg tablets and/or Hydroxyurea 500mg tablets, one or two per day);

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) in the treatment of prostate cancer: a preliminary retrospective study of 16 patients and a review of the literature;

- Recurrent Glioblastoma Multiforme (grade IV – WHO 2007): a case of complete objective response achieved by means of the concomitant administration of Somatostatin and Octreotide – Retinoids – Vitamin E – Vitamin D3 – Vitamin C – Melatonin – D2 R agonists (Di Bella Method – DBM) associated with Temozolomide;

- The Di Bella Method DBM improved survival objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 23 tumours of the head and neck;

- Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Long-Lasting Remission with Combination of Cyclophosphamide, Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Retinoids, Melatonin, and ACTH;

- Neuroblastoma: Complete objective response to biological treatment;

- Oesophageal squamocellular carcinoma: a complete and objective response;

- Congenital fibrosarcoma in complete remission with Somatostatin, Retinoids, Vitamin D3, Vitamin E, Vitamin C, Melatonin, Calcium, Chondroitin sulfate associated with low doses of Cyclophosphamide in a 14-year Follow Up.