All-trans retinoic acid modulates cancer stem cells of glioblastoma multiforme in an MAPK-dependent manner

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Published on Thursday, 25 June 2015

Abstract

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a grade IV glioma, appears to harbor therapy-resistant cancer stem cells (CSCs) that are the major cause of recurrence.

All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), a derivative of retinoid, is capable of differentiating a variety of stem cells, as well as normal neural progenitor cells, and down-regulates expression of the stem cell marker nestin.

This study investigated the effects of ATRA on differentiation, proliferation, self-renewal, and signaling pathways of CSCs in GBM. CSCs differentiated into glial and neuronal lineages at low concentrations of ATRA (10 μM).

Proliferation and self renewal of neurospheres were reduced following ATRA, although ATRA induced apopotsis at higher (40 μM) concentrations.

Analysis of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways, specifically extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2), showed that ATRA-induced alterations in ERK1/2 were associated with regulation of differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis.

These results emphasize that low doses of ATRA may have therapeutic potential by differentiating GBM CSCs and rendering them sensitive to targeted therapy.

 

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See also:

- Official Web Site: The Di Bella Method;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - All-Trans Retinoic Acid, Analogues and/or Derivatives - Approximately 60mg per day orally: 40mg per day Beta-Carotene/β-Carotene, 10mg per day ATRA and 10mg per day Axerophthol palmitate);

- All-Trans-Retinoic Acid (ATRA - analogues and/or derivatives) - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- Solution of retinoids in vitamin E in the Di Bella Method biological multitherapy;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Alpha tocopheryl acetate/Vitamin E, approximately 20 grams per day orally);

- Cancer and Vitamin E (analogues and/or derivatives) and cancer - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- Recurrent Glioblastoma Multiforme (grade IV – WHO 2007): a case of complete objective response achieved by means of the concomitant administration of Somatostatin and Octreotide – Retinoids – Vitamin E – Vitamin D3 – Vitamin C – Melatonin – D2 R agonists (Di Bella Method – DBM) associated with Temozolomide;

- The Di Bella Method DBM improved survival objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 23 tumours of the head and neck;

- Neuroblastoma: Complete objective response to biological treatment;

- Oesophageal squamocellular carcinoma: a complete and objective response.