Retinoic acid signaling pathways in development and diseases

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Published on Wednesday, 06 April 2016

Abstract

Retinoids comprise a group of compounds each composed of three basic parts: a trimethylated cyclohexene ring that is a bulky hydrophobic group, a conjugated tetraene side chain that functions as a linker unit, and a polar carbon-oxygen functional group.

Biochemical conversion of carotenoid or other retinoids to retinoic acid (RA) is essential for normal regulation of a wide range of biological processes including development, differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis.

Retinoids regulate various physiological outputs by binding to nuclear receptors called retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs), which themselves are DNA-binding transcriptional regulators.

The functional response of RA and their receptors are modulated by a host of coactivators and corepressors.

Retinoids are essential in the development and function of several organ systems; however, deregulated retinoid signaling can contribute to serious diseases.

Several natural and synthetic retinoids are in clinical use or undergoing trials for treating specific diseases including cancer.

In this review, we provide a broad overview on the importance of retinoids in development and various diseases, highlighting various retinoids in the drug discovery process, ranging all the way from retinoid chemistry to clinical uses and imaging.

 

 

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See also:

- All-Trans-Retinoic Acid (ATRA - analogues and/or derivatives);

- Solution of retinoids in vitamin E in the Di Bella Method biological multitherapy;

- Cyclophosphamide plus Somatostatin, Bromocriptin, Retinoids, Melatonin and ACTH in the Treatment of Low-grade Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphomas at Advanced Stage: Results of a Phase II Trial;

- Relapse of High-Grade Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma After Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation: A Case Successfully Treated With Cyclophosphamide Plus Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Melatonin, Retinoids, and ACTH;

- Low-grade Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma at Advanced Stage: A Case Successfully Treated With Cyclophosphamide Plus Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Retinoids, and Melatonin;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 55 cases of Lymphomas;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients with low performance status;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in chemotherapy-pretreated patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma and low performance status;

- Neuroblastoma: Complete objective response to biological treatment;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) in the treatment of prostate cancer: a preliminary retrospective study of 16 patients and a review of the literature;

- The Di Bella Method DBM improved survival objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 23 tumours of the head and neck;

- Congenital fibrosarcoma in complete remission with Somatostatin, Retinoids, Vitamin D3, Vitamin E, Vitamin C, Melatonin, Calcium, Chondroitin sulfate associated with low doses of Cyclophosphamide in a 14-year Follow Up.