Retinoic acid induces hypersegmentation and enhances cytotoxicity of neutrophils against cancer cells

Published on Tuesday, 18 April 2017


Hypersegmentation of nuclei is considered a distinct characteristic of the antitumoral phenotype of neutrophils.

Retinoic acid, a metabolite of retinol, reorganizes and induces segmentation of the nucleus during the differentiation of neutrophils. However, the role of retinoic acid in the phenotype polarization of neutrophils has not been fully established.

Here, we investigated the effect of retinoic acid on phenotype polarization of neutrophils.

Retinoic acid-induced the hypersegmentation of human neutrophils via retinoic acid receptors and mTOR pathways.

Retinoic acid-induced hypersegmented neutrophils enhanced neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) formation in response to phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and fMLP (N-Formylmethionine-leucyl-phenylalanine) stimulation, and increased cytotoxicity against various tumor cells.

Moreover, retinoic acid treatment attenuated tumor growth in a murine model of tumor.

Taken together, these results suggests that retinoic acid induces the phenotype polarization of neutrophils to exert antitumor effects.



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See also:

- All-Trans-Retinoic Acid (ATRA - analogues and/or derivatives);

- Solution of retinoids in vitamin E in the Di Bella Method biological multitherapy;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients with low performance status;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in chemotherapy-pretreated patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma and low performance status;

- Observations on the Report of a case of pulmonary adenocarcinoma with lymph node, hepatic and osseus metastasis;

- Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Long-Lasting Remission with Combination of Cyclophosphamide, Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Retinoids, Melatonin, and ACTH.