The oncogenic role of the spliced somatostatin receptor sst5TMD4 variant in prostate cancer

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Published on Thursday, 20 July 2017

Abstract

sst5TMD4, a splice variant of the sst5 gene, is overexpressed and associated with aggressiveness in various endocrine-related tumors, but its presence, functional role, and mechanisms of actions in prostate cancer (PCa)-the most common cancer type in males-is completely unexplored.

In this study, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded prostate pieces from patients with localized PCa, which included tumoral and nontumoral adjacent regions (n = 45), fresh biopsies from patients with high-risk PCa (n = 52), and healthy fresh prostates from cystoprostatectomies (n = 14) were examined. In addition, PCa cell lines and xenograft models were used to determine the presence and functional role of sst5TMD4.

Results demonstrated that sst5TMD4 is overexpressed (mRNA/protein) in PCa samples, and this is especially drastic in metastatic and/or high Gleason score tumor samples.

Remarkably, sst5TMD4 expression was associated with an altered frequency of 2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms: rs197055 and rs12599155.

In addition, PCa cell lines and xenograft models were used to demonstrate that sst5TMD4 overexpression increases cell proliferation and migration in PCa cells and induces larger tumors in nude mice, whereas its silencing decreased proliferation and migration.

Remarkably, sst5TMD4 overexpression activated multiple intracellular pathways (ERK/JNK, MYC/MAX, WNT, retinoblastoma), altered oncogenes and tumor suppressor gene expression, and disrupted the normal response to somatostatin analogs in PCa cells.

Altogether, we demonstrate that sst5TMD4 is overexpressed in PCa, especially in those patients with a worse prognosis, and plays an important pathophysiologic role in PCa, which suggesting its potential as a biomarker and/or therapeutic target.

 

 

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See also:

- Somatostatin in oncology, the overlooked evidences;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) in the treatment of prostate cancer: a preliminary retrospective study of 16 patients and a review of the literature;

- Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: clinical records on 17 patients treated with Di Bella's Method;

- The Di Bella Method Increases by the 30% the survival rate for Pancreas tumors and for this reason should be proposed as first line therapy for this type of cancer;

- Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the first-line treatment with somatostatin combined with melatonisn, retinoids, vitamin D3, and low doses of cyclophosphamide in 20 cases of breast cancer: a preliminary report;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 122 cases of breast cancer;

- Complete objective response to biological therapy of plurifocal breast carcinoma.