The Biological Activities of Vitamin D and Its Receptor in Relation to Calcium and Bone Homeostasis, Cancer, Immune and Cardiovascular Systems, Skin Biology, and Oral Health

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Published on Friday, 06 July 2018

Abstract

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a small subset of cells that may be responsible for initiation, progression, and recurrence of tumors.

Recent studies have demonstrated that CSCs are highly tumorigenic and resistant to conventional chemotherapies, making them a promising target for the development of preventive/therapeutic agents.

A single or combination of various markers, such as CD44, EpCAM, CD49f, CD133, CXCR4, ALDH-1, and CD24, were utilized to isolate CSCs from various types of human cancers.

Notch, Hedgehog, Wnt, and TGF-β signalingregulate self-renewal and differentiation of normal stem cells andare aberrantly activated in CSCs.

In addition, many studies have demonstrated that these stem cell-associated signaling pathways are required for the maintenance of CSCs in different malignancies, including breast, colorectal, prostate, and pancreatic cancers.

Accumulating evidence has shown inhibitory effects of vitamin D and its analogs on the cancer stem cell signaling pathways, suggesting vitamin D as a potential preventive/therapeutic agent against CSCs.

In this review, we summarize recent findings about the roles of Notch, Hedgehog, Wnt, and TGF-β signaling in CSCs as well as the effects of vitamin D on these stem cell signaling pathways.

 

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See also:

- Vitamin D (analogues and/or derivatives) and cancer;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Dihydrotachysterol, Alfacalcidol, synthetic Vitamin D3);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Cyclophosphamide and/or Hydroxyurea tablets, one or two per day);

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) in the treatment of prostate cancer: a preliminary retrospective study of 16 patients and a review of the literature;

- Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: clinical records on 17 patients treated with Di Bella's Method;

- The Di Bella Method Increases by the 30% the survival rate for Pancreas tumors and for this reason should be proposed as first line therapy for this type of cancer;

- Oesophageal squamocellular carcinoma: a complete and objective response;

- Neuroblastoma: Complete objective response to biological treatment;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients with low performance status;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in chemotherapy-pretreated patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma and low performance status;

- Observations on the Report of a case of pulmonary adenocarcinoma with lymph node, hepatic and osseus metastasis;

- Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Long-Lasting Remission with Combination of Cyclophosphamide, Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Retinoids, Melatonin, and ACTH;

- The Di Bella Method DBM improved survival objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 23 tumours of the head and neck;

- Recurrent Glioblastoma Multiforme (grade IV – WHO 2007): a case of complete objective response achieved by means of the concomitant administration of Somatostatin and Octreotide – Retinoids – Vitamin E – Vitamin D3 – Vitamin C – Melatonin – D2 R agonists (Di Bella Method – DBM) associated with Temozolomide;

- The Synergism of Somatostatin, Melatonin, Vitamins Prolactin and Estrogen Inhibitors Increased Survival, Objective Response and Performance Status In 297 Cases of Breast Cancer;

- Complete objective response, stable for 5 years, with the Di Bella Method, of multiple-metastatic carcinoma of the breast;

- Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the first-line treatment with somatostatin combined with melatonin, retinoids, vitamin D3, and low doses of cyclophosphamide in 20 cases of breast cancer: a preliminary report;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 122 cases of breast cancer;

- Complete objective response to biological therapy of plurifocal breast carcinoma.