Somatostatin and CXCR4 expression patterns in adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the lung relative to small cell lung cancer

Print
Published on Monday, 06 August 2018

Abstract

PURPOSE: Lung cancer is highly prevalent and has an especially poor prognosis. Thus, new diagnostic and therapeutic targets are necessary. Two potential targets are somatostatin receptors (SST), which are overexpressed in well-differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasms, and the chemokine receptor CXCR4, which is present mainly in highly proliferative and advanced tumours. Although their expression is relatively well characterized in small cell lung cancer (SCLC), in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), data on SST and CXCR4 expression are scarce and contradictory.

METHODS: We comparatively evaluated 83 tumour samples from a total of 57 lung cancer patients, of which 22 had adenocarcinoma (ADC), 21 had squamous cell carcinoma (SQC), and 15 had SCLC. Samples were evaluated for SST and CXCR4 expression using immunohistochemistry with well-characterized rabbit monoclonal antibodies.

RESULTS: In the samples investigated, the most prominently expressed receptors were CXCR4 and SST5. Specifically, CXCR4 was detected with high expression intensity in more than 60% of ADC samples, about 90% of SQC, and 100% of SCLC. SST5 was present in about 75% of ADC and SQC samples and in more than 90% of SCLC. Although not noticeably expressed in ADC and SQC samples, SST2 was detected in 50% of SCLC cases, with a subset of patients displaying exceptionally high expression. The comparison of the three tumour entities revealed that SCLC samples had higher SST2, SST5, and CXCR4 expression, but lower SST3 and SST1 relative to ADC or SQC samples.

CONCLUSION: CXCR4 may be a promising target for diagnostics and therapy in both SCLC and NSCLC.

 

About this publication.

See also:

- Somatostatin in oncology, the overlooked evidences;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Somatostatin, Octreotide, Sandostatin LAR, analogues and/or derivatives);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Cyclophosphamide and/or Hydroxyurea tablets, one or two per day);

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients with low performance status;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in chemotherapy-pretreated patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma and low performance status;

- Observations on the Report of a case of pulmonary adenocarcinoma with lymph node, hepatic and osseus metastasis;

- Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: clinical records on 17 patients treated with Di Bella's Method;

- The Di Bella Method Increases by the 30% the survival rate for Pancreas tumors and for this reason should be proposed as first line therapy for this type of cancer;

- Oesophageal squamocellular carcinoma: a complete and objective response;

- Neuroblastoma: Complete objective response to biological treatment;

- The Di Bella Method DBM improved survival objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 23 tumours of the head and neck;

- Recurrent Glioblastoma Multiforme (grade IV – WHO 2007): a case of complete objective response achieved by means of the concomitant administration of Somatostatin and Octreotide – Retinoids – Vitamin E – Vitamin D3 – Vitamin C – Melatonin – D2 R agonists (Di Bella Method – DBM) associated with Temozolomide;

- The Synergism of Somatostatin, Melatonin, Vitamins Prolactin and Estrogen Inhibitors Increased Survival, Objective Response and Performance Status In 297 Cases of Breast Cancer;

- Complete objective response, stable for 5 years, with the Di Bella Method, of multiple-metastatic carcinoma of the breast;

- Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the first-line treatment with somatostatin combined with melatonin, retinoids, vitamin D3, and low doses of cyclophosphamide in 20 cases of breast cancer: a preliminary report;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 122 cases of breast cancer;

- Complete objective response to biological therapy of plurifocal breast carcinoma.