Antagonists of growth hormone-releasing hormone inhibit proliferation induced by inflammation in prostatic epithelial cells

Published on Monday, 28 January 2019


The etiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is multifactorial, and chronic inflammation plays a pivotal role in its pathogenesis.

Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that has been shown to act as paracrine/autocrine factor in various malignancies including prostate cancer.

GHRH and its receptors are expressed in experimental models of BPH, in which antagonists of GHRH suppressed the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and altered the expression of genes related to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT).

We investigated the effects of GHRH antagonist on prostatic enlargement induced by inflammation.

Autoimmune prostatitis in Balb/C mice was induced by a homogenate of reproductive tissues of male rats.

During the 8-wk induction of chronic prostatitis, we detected a progressive increase in prostatic volume reaching 92% at week 8 compared with control (P < 0.001). Daily treatment for 1 mo with GHRH antagonist MIA-690 caused a 30% reduction in prostate volume (P < 0.05).

Conditioned medium derived from macrophages increased the average volume of spheres by 82.7% (P < 0.001) and elevated the expression of mRNA for N-cadherin, Snail, and GHRH GHRH antagonist reduced the average volume of spheres stimulated by inflammation by 75.5% (P < 0.05), and TGF-β2 by 91.8% (P < 0.01).

The proliferation of primary epithelial cells stimulated by IL-17A or TGF-β2 was also inhibited by 124.1% and 69.9%, respectively. GHRH stimulated the growth of BPH-1 and primary prostate spheres.

This study provides evidence that GHRH plays important roles in prostatic inflammation and EMT and suggests the merit of further investigation to elucidate the effects of GHRH antagonists in prostatitis and BPH.


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See also:

- Official Web Site: The Di Bella Method;

- Somatostatin in oncology, the overlooked evidences - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Somatostatin, Octreotide, Sandostatin LAR, analogues and/or derivatives);

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) in the treatment of prostate cancer: a preliminary retrospective study of 16 patients and a review of the literature;

- Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Long-Lasting Remission with Combination of Cyclophosphamide, Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Retinoids, Melatonin, and ACTH;

- The Synergism of Somatostatin, Melatonin, Vitamins Prolactin and Estrogen Inhibitors Increased Survival, Objective Response and Performance Status In 297 Cases of Breast Cancer;

- Complete objective response, stable for 5 years, with the Di Bella Method, of multiple-metastatic carcinoma of the breast;

- Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the first-line treatment with somatostatin combined with melatonin, retinoids, vitamin D3, and low doses of cyclophosphamide in 20 cases of breast cancer: a preliminary report;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 122 cases of breast cancer;

- Complete objective response to biological therapy of plurifocal breast carcinoma.