Vitamin D Supplements and Total Cancer Incidence and Mortality: a Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

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Published on Thursday, 14 March 2019

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Previous meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of vitamin D supplementation and total cancer incidence and mortality found inconsistent results, and most included trials administered generally low doses of vitamin D (≤ 1100 IU/day). We updated the meta-analysis by incorporating recent RCTs that have tested higher doses of vitamin D supplements.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMed and Embase were searched from the inception to November, 2018. Summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using a random-effects model.

RESULTS: For total cancer incidence, 10 trials were included (6,547 cases; 3-10 years of follow-up; 54-135 nmol/L of attained levels of circulating 25(OH)vitamin D [25(OH)D] in the intervention group). The summary RR was 0.98 (95% CI, 0.93 to 1.03; P=.42; I2=0%). The results remained null across subgroups tested, including even when attained 25(OH)D levels exceeded 100 nmol/L (RR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.83 to 1.09; P=.48; I2=26%). For total cancer mortality, 5 trials were included (1,591 deaths; 3-10 years of follow-up; 54-135 nmol/L of attained levels of circulating 25(OH)D in the intervention group). The summary RR was 0.87 (95% CI, 0.79 to 0.96; P=.005; I2=0%), which was largely attributable to interventions with daily dosing (as opposed to infrequent bolus dosing). No statistically significant heterogeneity was observed by attained levels of circulating 25(OH)D (Pheterogeneity=.83), with RR being 0.88 (95% CI, 0.78 to 0.98; P=.02; I2=0%) for ≤ 100 nmol/L and 0.85 (95% CI, 0.70-1.03; P=.11; I2=0%) for > 100 nmol/L.

CONCLUSIONS: In an updated meta-analysis of RCTs, vitamin D supplementation significantly reduced total cancer mortality but did not reduce total cancer incidence.

 

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See also:

- Official Web Site: The Di Bella Method;

- Vitamin D (analogues and/or derivatives) and cancer - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Dihydrotachysterol, Alfacalcidol, synthetic Vitamin D3);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Calcium, 2 grams per day, orally);

- The Di Bella Method (A Variable Part - Omega 3 Essential/Unsaturated Fatty Acids. From 1.5 grams up to 3.0 grams per day orally);

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) in the treatment of prostate cancer: a preliminary retrospective study of 16 patients and a review of the literature;

- Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: clinical records on 17 patients treated with Di Bella's Method;

- The Di Bella Method Increases by the 30% the survival rate for Pancreas tumors and for this reason should be proposed as first line therapy for this type of cancer;

- Oesophageal squamocellular carcinoma: a complete and objective response;

- Cyclophosphamide plus Somatostatin, Bromocriptin, Retinoids, Melatonin and ACTH in the Treatment of Low-grade Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphomas at Advanced Stage: Results of a Phase II Trial;

- Relapse of High-Grade Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma After Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation: A Case Successfully Treated With Cyclophosphamide Plus Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Melatonin, Retinoids, and ACTH;

- Low-grade Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma at Advanced Stage: A Case Successfully Treated With Cyclophosphamide Plus Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Retinoids, and Melatonin;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 55 cases of Lymphomas;

- Large B-cells Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma, Stage IV-AE: a Case Report;

- Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma, Stage III-B-E: a Case Report;

- Neuroblastoma: Complete objective response to biological treatment;

- Recurrent Glioblastoma Multiforme (grade IV – WHO 2007): a case of complete objective response achieved by means of the concomitant administration of Somatostatin and Octreotide – Retinoids – Vitamin E – Vitamin D3 – Vitamin C – Melatonin – D2 R agonists (Di Bella Method – DBM) associated with Temozolomide;

- The Di Bella Method DBM improved survival objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 23 tumours of the head and neck;

- The Synergism of Somatostatin, Melatonin, Vitamins Prolactin and Estrogen Inhibitors Increased Survival, Objective Response and Performance Status In 297 Cases of Breast Cancer;

- Complete objective response, stable for 5 years, with the Di Bella Method, of multiple-metastatic carcinoma of the breast;

- Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the first-line treatment with somatostatin combined with melatonin, retinoids, vitamin D3, and low doses of cyclophosphamide in 20 cases of breast cancer: a preliminary report;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 122 cases of breast cancer;

- Complete objective response to biological therapy of plurifocal breast carcinoma.