Melatonin inhibits lung metastasis of gastric cancer in vivo

Published on Monday, 10 June 2019


AIM: Melatonin shows therapeutic benefits in gastric cancer, but the mechanism underlying its anticancer effects remains elusive. The aim of this study was to determine whether melatonin inhibits lung metastasis in gastric cancer.

MAIN METHODS: A lung metastasis model of gastric cancer was established in nude mice injected with human gastric adenocarcinoma MGC80-3 cells. Mice were divided into control, IL-1β-treated, melatonin-treated, and IL-1β plus melatonin-treated groups and analyzed for the formation of lung metastatic nodules by flow cytometry and hematoxylin and eosin staining. The mRNA expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers was assessed by RT-qPCR. The activities of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 were determined by gelatin zymography and their protein expression by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The levels of NF-κB p65 and phosphorylated (p)-p65 were detected by immunohistochemistry.

KEY FINDINGS: The number of lung metastases in the IL-1β plus melatonin group was significantly lower and the sizes of nodules were smaller than those in the IL-1β group. Furthermore, melatonin reversed changes in the expression of EMT markers induced by IL-1β by increasing mRNA levels of β-catenin and E-cadherin and decreasing those of fibronectin, vimentin, and Snail compared to IL-1β. Treatment with IL-1β upregulated the expression and activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 and expression of NF-κB p65 and phospho-p65 (p-p65), but melatonin alleviated these effects.

SIGNIFICANCE: Melatonin inhibited IL-1β-induced lung metastasis of gastric cancer through downregulation of MMP-2, MMP-9, and NF-κB p65 expression and activities. These findings provide a basis for potential use of melatonin as a supplementary therapy for patients with advanced gastric cancer.


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See also:

- Official Web Site: The Di Bella Method;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Melatonin tablets. From 30-40mg/day up to 200mg/day orally in patients with advanced stage of cancer disease and/or patients without respond to traditional treatments);

- Melatonin with adenosine solubilized in water and stabilized with glycine for oncological treatment - technical preparation, effectivity and clinical findings;

- About Melatonin - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Cyclophosphamide 50mg tablets and/or Hydroxyurea 500mg tablets, one or two per day);

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients with low performance status;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in chemotherapy-pretreated patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma and low performance status;

- Observations on the Report of a case of pulmonary adenocarcinoma with lymph node, hepatic and osseus metastasis;

- Oesophageal squamocellular carcinoma: a complete and objective response;

- Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: clinical records on 17 patients treated with Di Bella's Method;

- The Di Bella Method Increases by the 30% the survival rate for Pancreas tumors and for this reason should be proposed as first line therapy for this type of cancer;

- Recurrent Glioblastoma Multiforme (grade IV – WHO 2007): a case of complete objective response achieved by means of the concomitant administration of Somatostatin and Octreotide – Retinoids – Vitamin E – Vitamin D3 – Vitamin C – Melatonin – D2 R agonists (Di Bella Method – DBM) associated with Temozolomide;

- The Di Bella Method DBM improved survival objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 23 tumours of the head and neck;

- Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Long-Lasting Remission with Combination of Cyclophosphamide, Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Retinoids, Melatonin, and ACTH;

- Neuroblastoma: Complete objective response to biological treatment;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) in the treatment of prostate cancer: a preliminary retrospective study of 16 patients and a review of the literature;

- The Synergism of Somatostatin, Melatonin, Vitamins Prolactin and Estrogen Inhibitors Increased Survival, Objective Response and Performance Status In 297 Cases of Breast Cancer;

- Complete objective response, stable for 5 years, with the Di Bella Method, of multiple-metastatic carcinoma of the breast;

- Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the first-line treatment with somatostatin combined with melatonin, retinoids, vitamin D3, and low doses of cyclophosphamide in 20 cases of breast cancer: a preliminary report;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 122 cases of breast cancer;

- Complete objective response to biological therapy of plurifocal breast carcinoma.