Myoepithelial and luminal breast cancer cells exhibit different responses to all-trans retinoic acid

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Published on Tuesday, 16 July 2019

Abstract

PURPOSE: Breast cancer is the leading cause of death among women worldwide. The exact role of luminal epithelial (LEP) and myoephitelial (MEP) cells in breast cancer development is as yet unclear, as also how retinoids may affect their behaviour. Here, we set out to evaluate whether retinoids may differentially regulate cell type-specific processes associated with breast cancer development using the bi-cellular LM38-LP murine mammary adenocarcinoma cell line as a model.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The bi-cellular LM38-LP murine mammary cell line was used as a model throughout all experiments. LEP and MEP subpopulations were separated using inmunobeads, and the expression of genes known to be involved in epithelial to mysenchymal transition (EMT) was assessed by qPCR after all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) treatment. In vitro invasive capacities of LM38-LP cells were evaluated using 3D Matrigel cultures in conjunction with confocal microscopy. Also, in vitro proliferation, senescence and apoptosis characteristics were evaluated in the LEP and MEP subpopulations after ATRA treatment, as well as the effects of ATRA treatment on the clonogenic, adhesive and invasive capacities of these cells. Mammosphere assays were performed to detect stem cell subpopulations. Finally, the orthotopic growth and metastatic abilities of LM38-LP monolayer and mammosphere-derived cells were evaluated in vivo.

RESULTS: We found that ATRA treatment modulates a set of genes related to EMT, resulting in distinct gene expression signatures for the LEP or MEP subpopulations. We found that the MEP subpopulation responds to ATRA by increasing its adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM) components and by reducing its invasive capacity. We also found that ATRA induces apoptosis in LEP cells, whereas the MEP compartment responded with senescence. In addition, we found that ATRA treatment results in smaller and more organized LM38-LP colonies in Matrigel. Finally, we identified a third subpopulation within the LM38-LP cell line with stem/progenitor cell characteristics, exhibiting a partial resistance to ATRA.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that the luminal epithelial (LEP) and myoephitelial (MEP) mammary LM38-P subpopulations respond differently to ATRA, i.e., the LEP subpopulation responds with increased cell cycle arrest and apoptosis and the MEP subpopulation responds with increased senescence and adhesion, thereby decreasing its invasive capacity. Finally, we identified a third subpopulation with stem/progenitor cell characteristics within the LM38-LP mammary adenocarcinoma cell line, which appears to be non-responsive to ATRA.

 

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See also:

- Official Web Site: The Di Bella Method;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - All-Trans Retinoic Acid, Analogues and/or Derivatives - Approximately 60mg per day orally: 40mg per day Beta-Carotene/β-Carotene, 10mg per day ATRA and 10mg per day Axerophthol palmitate);

- All-Trans-Retinoic Acid (ATRA - analogues and/or derivatives) - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- Solution of retinoids in vitamin E in the Di Bella Method biological multitherapy;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Alpha tocopheryl acetate/Vitamin E, approximately 20 grams per day orally);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Cyclophosphamide 50mg tablets and/or Hydroxyurea 500mg tablets, one or two per day);

- The Synergism of Somatostatin, Melatonin, Vitamins Prolactin and Estrogen Inhibitors Increased Survival, Objective Response and Performance Status In 297 Cases of Breast Cancer;

- Complete objective response, stable for 5 years, with the Di Bella Method, of multiple-metastatic carcinoma of the breast;

- Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the first-line treatment with somatostatin combined with melatonin, retinoids, vitamin D3, and low doses of cyclophosphamide in 20 cases of breast cancer: a preliminary report;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 122 cases of breast cancer;

- Complete objective response to biological therapy of plurifocal breast carcinoma;

- Recurrent Glioblastoma Multiforme (grade IV – WHO 2007): a case of complete objective response achieved by means of the concomitant administration of Somatostatin and Octreotide – Retinoids – Vitamin E – Vitamin D3 – Vitamin C – Melatonin – D2 R agonists (Di Bella Method – DBM) associated with Temozolomide;

- The Di Bella Method DBM improved survival objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 23 tumours of the head and neck;

- Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Long-Lasting Remission with Combination of Cyclophosphamide, Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Retinoids, Melatonin, and ACTH;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients with low performance status;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in chemotherapy-pretreated patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma and low performance status;

- Observations on the Report of a case of pulmonary adenocarcinoma with lymph node, hepatic and osseus metastasis;

- Neuroblastoma: Complete objective response to biological treatment;

- Oesophageal squamocellular carcinoma: a complete and objective response;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) in the treatment of prostate cancer: a preliminary retrospective study of 16 patients and a review of the literature;

- Congenital fibrosarcoma in complete remission with Somatostatin, Retinoids, Vitamin D3, Vitamin E, Vitamin C, Melatonin, Calcium, Chondroitin sulfate associated with low doses of Cyclophosphamide in a 14-year Follow Up.