Targeting the Somatostatin Receptor 2 with the Miniaturized Drug Conjugate, PEN-221: A Potent and Novel Therapeutic for the Treatment of Small Cell Lung Cancer

Print
Published on Friday, 01 November 2019

Abstract

Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma with a 95% mortality rate with no improvement to treatment in decades, and new therapies are desperately needed.

PEN-221 is a miniaturized peptide-drug conjugate (∼2 kDa) designed to target SCLC via a Somatostatin Receptor 2 (SSTR2)-targeting ligand and to overcome the high proliferation rate characteristic of this disease by using the potent cytotoxic payload, DM1. SSTR2 is an ideal target for a drug conjugate, as it is overexpressed in SCLC with limited normal tissue expression.

In vitro, PEN-221 treatment of SSTR2-positive cells resulted in PEN-221 internalization and receptor-dependent inhibition of cellular proliferation.

In vivo, PEN-221 exhibited rapid accumulation in SSTR2-positive SCLC xenograft tumors with quick clearance from plasma.

Tumor accumulation was sustained, resulting in durable pharmacodynamic changes throughout the tumor, as evidenced by increases in the mitotic marker of G2-M arrest, phosphohistone H3, and increases in the apoptotic marker, cleaved caspase-3.

PEN-221 treatment resulted in significant antitumor activity, including complete regressions in SSTR2-positive SCLC xenograft mouse models. Treatment was effective using a variety of dosing schedules and at doses below the MTD, suggesting flexibility of dosing schedule and potential for a large therapeutic window in the clinic.

The unique attributes of the miniaturized drug conjugate allowed for deep tumor penetration and limited plasma exposure that may enable long-term dosing, resulting in durable tumor control.

Collectively, these data suggest potential for antitumor activity of PEN-221 in patients with SSTR2-positive SCLC.

 

About this publication.

See also:

- Official Web Site: The Di Bella Method;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Somatostatin, Octreotide, Sandostatin LAR, analogues and/or derivatives);

- Somatostatin in oncology, the overlooked evidences - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- Publication: Over-Expression of GH/GHR in Breast Cancer and Oncosuppressor Role of Somatostatin as a Physiological Inhibitor (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication: The over-expression of GH/GHR in tumour tissues with respect to healthy ones confirms its oncogenic role and the consequent oncosuppressor role of its physiological inhibitor, somatostatin: a review of the literature (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication: The Entrapment of Somatostatin in a Lipid Formulation: Retarded Release and Free Radical Reactivity (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Cyclophosphamide 50mg tablets and/or Hydroxyurea 500mg tablets, one or two per day);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Bromocriptine and/or Cabergoline);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Calcium, 2 grams per day, orally);

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients with low performance status;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in chemotherapy-pretreated patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma and low performance status;

- Observations on the Report of a case of pulmonary adenocarcinoma with lymph node, hepatic and osseus metastasis;

- The Synergism of Somatostatin, Melatonin, Vitamins Prolactin and Estrogen Inhibitors Increased Survival, Objective Response and Performance Status In 297 Cases of Breast Cancer;

- Complete objective response, stable for 5 years, with the Di Bella Method, of multiple-metastatic carcinoma of the breast;

- Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the first-line treatment with somatostatin combined with melatonin, retinoids, vitamin D3, and low doses of cyclophosphamide in 20 cases of breast cancer: a preliminary report;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 122 cases of breast cancer;

- Complete objective response to biological therapy of plurifocal breast carcinoma;

- Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: clinical records on 17 patients treated with Di Bella's Method;

- The Di Bella Method Increases by the 30% the survival rate for Pancreas tumors and for this reason should be proposed as first line therapy for this type of cancer;

- Oesophageal squamocellular carcinoma: a complete and objective response;

- Neuroblastoma: Complete objective response to biological treatment;

- Recurrent Glioblastoma Multiforme (grade IV – WHO 2007): a case of complete objective response achieved by means of the concomitant administration of Somatostatin and Octreotide – Retinoids – Vitamin E – Vitamin D3 – Vitamin C – Melatonin – D2 R agonists (Di Bella Method – DBM) associated with Temozolomide;

- The Di Bella Method DBM improved survival objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 23 tumours of the head and neck.