Reciprocal Fine-Tuning of Progesterone and Prolactin-Regulated Gene Expression in Breast Cancer Cells

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Published on Monday, 08 June 2020

Abstract

Progesterone and prolactin are two key hormones involved in development and remodeling of the mammary gland. As such, both hormones have been linked to breast cancer. Despite the overlap between biological processes ascribed to these two hormones, little is known about how co-expression of both hormones affects their individual actions.

Progesterone and prolactin exert many of their effects on the mammary gland through activation of gene expression, either directly (progesterone, binding to the progesterone receptor [PR]) or indirectly (multiple transcription factors being activated downstream of prolactin, most notably STAT5).

Using RNA-seq in T47D breast cancer cells, we characterized the gene expression programs regulated by progestin and prolactin, either alone or in combination. We found significant crosstalk and fine-tuning between the transcriptional programs executed by each hormone independently and in combination. We divided and characterized the transcriptional programs into four broad categories. All crosstalk/fine-tuning shown to be modulated by progesterone was dependent upon the expression of PR.

Moreover, PR was recruited to enhancer regions of all regulated genes. Interestingly, despite the canonical role for STAT5 in transducing prolactin-signaling in the normal and lactating mammary gland, very few of the prolactin-regulated transcriptional programs fine-tuned by progesterone in this breast cancer cell line model system were in fact dependent upon STAT5.

Cumulatively, these data suggest that the interplay of progesterone and prolactin in breast cancer impacts gene expression in a more complex and nuanced manner than previously thought, and likely through different transcriptional regulators than those observed in the normal mammary gland.

Studying gene regulation when both hormones are present is most clinically relevant, particularly in the context of breast cancer.

 

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See also:

- Official Web Site: The Di Bella Method;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Bromocriptine and/or Cabergoline);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Cyclophosphamide 50mg tablets and/or Hydroxyurea 500mg tablets, one or two per day);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Calcium, 2 grams per day, orally);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Somatostatin, Octreotide, Sandostatin LAR, analogues and/or derivatives);

- Somatostatin in oncology, the overlooked evidences - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- Publication, 2018 Jul: Over-Expression of GH/GHR in Breast Cancer and Oncosuppressor Role of Somatostatin as a Physiological Inhibitor (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2018 Sep: The over-expression of GH/GHR in tumour tissues with respect to healthy ones confirms its oncogenic role and the consequent oncosuppressor role of its physiological inhibitor, somatostatin: a review of the literature (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2019 Aug: The Entrapment of Somatostatin in a Lipid Formulation: Retarded Release and Free Radical Reactivity (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2019 Sep: Effects of Somatostatin and Vitamin C on the Fatty Acid Profile of Breast Cancer Cell Membranes (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- The Synergism of Somatostatin, Melatonin, Vitamins Prolactin and Estrogen Inhibitors Increased Survival, Objective Response and Performance Status In 297 Cases of Breast Cancer;

- Complete objective response, stable for 5 years, with the Di Bella Method, of multiple-metastatic carcinoma of the breast;

- Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the first-line treatment with somatostatin combined with melatonin, retinoids, vitamin D3, and low doses of cyclophosphamide in 20 cases of breast cancer: a preliminary report;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 122 cases of breast cancer;

- Complete objective response to biological therapy of plurifocal breast carcinoma.