Retinoic acid modulates the ability of macrophages to participate in the induction of the angiogenic phenotype in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

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Published on Friday, 20 September 2019

Abstract

Angiogenesis, an essential step in the development of neoplasia, is a complex process that involves the interaction of tumor cells with stromal cells.

Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) can participate in the induction of angiogenesis and are of prognostic value in some neoplasms.

Specimens from head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) often contain large numbers of TAMs.

In addition, experimental evidence has demonstrated that HNSCC tumor cells can attract and activate macrophages to participate in the expression of the angiogenic phenotype.

These findings suggest that antiangiogenic therapies for HNSCC must include strategies that will block the recruitment of macrophages into the tumor microenvironment.

We investigated the ability of retinoic acid (RA) to modulate the ability of tumor cells to recruit and activate monocytes for participation in tumor angiogenesis. Owing to a decrease in the secretion of MCP-1 and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1), tumor cells treated with RA were unable to induce peripheral blood monocyte (PBM) chemotaxis. Also, as a result of the decrease in TGF-beta 1 secretion, RA-treated tumor cells were unable to activate macrophages for secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and interleukin-8 (IL-8).

In addition to its affects on tumor cells, RA also directly altered the ability of monocytes to participate in the tumor angiogenesis process. PBM exposed to RA were unable to migrate toward inducers of PBM such as MCP-1 and TGF-beta 1.

Finally, RA decreased the ability of tumor-activated macrophages to secrete IL-8 and VEGF.

These data demonstrate alternative mechanisms by which RA may modulate angiogenesis in the tumor microenvironment.

In addition, it underscores the necessity to develop antiangiogenic treatment protocols that can block each of the ways in which new blood vessel growth is induced in tumor microenvironments.

 

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See also:

- Official Web Site: The Di Bella Method;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - All-Trans Retinoic Acid, Analogues and/or Derivatives - Approximately 60mg per day orally: 40mg per day Beta-Carotene/β-Carotene, 10mg per day ATRA and 10mg per day Axerophthol palmitate);

- All-Trans-Retinoic Acid (ATRA - analogues and/or derivatives) - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- Solution of retinoids in vitamin E in the Di Bella Method biological multitherapy;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Somatostatin, Octreotide, Sandostatin LAR, analogues and/or derivatives);

- Somatostatin in oncology, the overlooked evidences - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Bromocriptine and/or Cabergoline);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Cyclophosphamide 50mg tablets and/or Hydroxyurea 500mg tablets, one or two per day);

- The Di Bella Method DBM improved survival objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 23 tumours of the head and neck;

- The Synergism of Somatostatin, Melatonin, Vitamins Prolactin and Estrogen Inhibitors Increased Survival, Objective Response and Performance Status In 297 Cases of Breast Cancer;

- Complete objective response, stable for 5 years, with the Di Bella Method, of multiple-metastatic carcinoma of the breast;

- Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the first-line treatment with somatostatin combined with melatonin, retinoids, vitamin D3, and low doses of cyclophosphamide in 20 cases of breast cancer: a preliminary report;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 122 cases of breast cancer;

- Complete objective response to biological therapy of plurifocal breast carcinoma;

- Recurrent Glioblastoma Multiforme (grade IV – WHO 2007): a case of complete objective response achieved by means of the concomitant administration of Somatostatin and Octreotide – Retinoids – Vitamin E – Vitamin D3 – Vitamin C – Melatonin – D2 R agonists (Di Bella Method – DBM) associated with Temozolomide;

- Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Long-Lasting Remission with Combination of Cyclophosphamide, Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Retinoids, Melatonin, and ACTH;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients with low performance status;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in chemotherapy-pretreated patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma and low performance status;

- Observations on the Report of a case of pulmonary adenocarcinoma with lymph node, hepatic and osseus metastasis;

- Neuroblastoma: Complete objective response to biological treatment;

- Oesophageal squamocellular carcinoma: a complete and objective response;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) in the treatment of prostate cancer: a preliminary retrospective study of 16 patients and a review of the literature.