Selective ascorbate toxicity in malignant mesothelioma: a redox Trojan mechanism

Published on Wednesday, 11 April 2018


We studied the mechanism of ascorbate toxicity in malignant mesothelioma (MMe) cells.

Neutral red uptake showed that ascorbate, but not dehydroascorbate, was highly toxic in the MMe cell lines REN and MM98, and less toxic in immortalized (human mesothelial cells-htert) and primary mesothelial cells.

Ascorbate transport inhibitors phloretin, sodium azide, and ouabain did not reduce ascorbate toxicity.

Ascorbate promoted the formation of H(2)O(2) in the cell medium, and its toxicity was suppressed by extracellular catalase, but the concentration of endogenous catalase was higher in MMe cells than in normal cells.

The confocal imaging of cells loaded with the dihydrhodamine 123 reactive oxygen species probe showed that ascorbate caused a strong increase of rhodamine fluorescence in MMe cells, but not in mesothelial cells. MMe cells showed a higher production of superoxide and NADPH oxidase (NOX)4 expression than did mesothelial cells.

Two inhibitors of cellular superoxide sources (apocynin and rotenone) reduced ascorbate toxicity and the ascorbate-induced rise in rhodamine fluorescence. NOX4 small interfering RNA also reduced ascorbate toxicity in REN cells.

Taken together, the data indicate that ascorbate-induced extracellular H(2)O(2) production induces a strong oxidative stress in MMe cells because of their high rate of superoxide production.

This explains the selective toxicity of ascorbate in MMe cells, and suggests its possible use in the clinical treatment of malignant mesothelioma.


About this publication.

See also:

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Vitamin C/Ascorbic Acid, 2–4 grams per day, orally);

- Pleural Mesothelioma: clinical records on 11 patients treated with Di Bella's Method;

- Malignant pleural mesothelioma, stage T3-T4. Consideration of a case study;

- Excellent result in a Mesothelioma case treated exclusively with Di Bella Method for over 4 years and still treatment with positive results;

- Congenital fibrosarcoma in complete remission with Somatostatin, Retinoids, Vitamin D3, Vitamin E, Vitamin C, Melatonin, Calcium, Chondroitin sulfate associated with low doses of Cyclophosphamide in a 14-year Follow Up;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) in the treatment of prostate cancer: a preliminary retrospective study of 16 patients and a review of the literature;

- Neuroblastoma: Complete objective response to biological treatment;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients with low performance status;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in chemotherapy-pretreated patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma and low performance status;

- Observations on the Report of a case of pulmonary adenocarcinoma with lymph node, hepatic and osseus metastasis;

- Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Long-Lasting Remission with Combination of Cyclophosphamide, Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Retinoids, Melatonin, and ACTH;

- Complete objective response, stable for 5 years, with the Di Bella Method, of multiple-metastatic carcinoma of the breast;

- Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the first-line treatment with somatostatin combined with melatonin, retinoids, vitamin D3, and low doses of cyclophosphamide in 20 cases of breast cancer: a preliminary report;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 122 cases of breast cancer;

- Complete objective response to biological therapy of plurifocal breast carcinoma.